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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. This paper examines the experience of transitioning to womanhood in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, drawing on interviews with 18 women aged 18— Three primary experiences characterised this transition: puberty and emerging body awareness, spending time with boys, and having. Behavioural standards reinforcing ideal femininity were focused on dress, manner, and talk, and were particularly stringent for mothers.
Our findings emphasise the value of emic models of adulthood for understanding how youth experience this transition and provide an important counter-narrative to the literature focused primarily on the risk African youth face during this period of change in the life course. In most African countries, young people aged 10—24 years constitute at least one-third of the population, and many will come of age in the next 5—10 years Population Reference Bureau African youth are confronted with numerous risks and challenges including the risks of being co-opted into war or experiencing early illness and death in the wake of the HIV pandemic, and the challenges of finding employment and living in conditions of extreme poverty.
This is reflected by a predominant focus of the literature on the risks and vulnerability African youth experience see Blum Adult want sex Dyer Indiana a review. Although important and reflective of the reality in which many young people grow up, what is sometimes obscured is research that describes transitions to adulthood in an unproblematised way, and research that focuses on how transitions are experienced by African youth themselves. A traditional Western transition to adulthood perspective focuses on five experiences that Adult want sex Dyer Indiana the period of time when youth separate from their parents and make commitments to adult lives and institutions.
These include finishing school, getting a job, moving out, getting married, and having Elder; Settersten In this paper, however, we examine the embodied experience of transitioning to womanhood in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, and use emic markers of transition to capture the social meanings young women attach to the stages of becoming a woman. We find that more important than the timing of the transition is the manner in which it happens, and as such, we focus the final part of the paper on how women define respectable womanhood.
Research on young women in South Africa today paints a fairly dismal picture of how the transition to womanhood unfolds, with many studies focused on the risks young women face. Recent studies aimed at understanding these experiences, for example, have focused on sexual risk because of HIV, a disease disproportionately affecting young South African women e. The risk of unintended pregnancy and the lack of contraception are also common subjects of concern e. In particular, we contribute to literature focused on young women growing up in rural parts of South Africa.
This is important because in the post-apartheid era, myriad ways to attain womanhood have opened up to South African girls. While most families live in multigenerational, extended family arrangements, female-headed households have become increasingly common Madhavan and Schatz ; Niehaus Many of these hardships continue today. For example, local schools are of poor quality Fiske and Ladd and provide inadequate preparation for employment.
Inthe adult unemployment rate was Additionally, at the time of the study, many residents lacked reliable access to piped water and electricity, and there was no formal sanitation system Kahn et al. s from the 19 th century highlight the collective nature of the transition to adulthood, which included rituals ifying that young people were developmentally and socially ready to take on adult roles Monica Hunter ; Junod ; Wilson For young women, however, menarche was followed by ceremonies involving a period of seclusion varying from one week to three monthsritual dances, the use of natural bleaching agents on the skin, and ritual animal slaughter Monica Hunter These rituals were experienced collectively within cohorts and prepared youth to take on adult roles in marriage and the community Delius and Glaser ; Monica Hunter ; Junod Demonstrating respect for oneself and for others — particularly elders — was also a fundamental part of social life and an important criterion of adulthood in this and other parts of South Africa Bhana ; Monica Hunter ; Niehaus ; Stadler Respect was often tied to sexual propriety and fulfilling gendered expectations tied to marriage, household roles, and childrearing.
Many of these customs continue today. At the same time, young people in Agincourt and other parts of South Africa today encounter social and structural conditions that complicate their achieving respectable adulthood. For example, marriage—a traditional pathway to adulthood—has declined dramatically among recent cohorts Hosegood, McGrath, and Moultrie ; SSA Once nearly universal Preston-Whyteby only one in five Black South African women had married by age 30, a proportion that dropped to one in ten by Posel, Rudwick, and Casale This decline is often attributed to economic constraints complicating the payment of bridewealth Casale and Posel ; Posel, Rudwick, and Casale These structural constraints raise questions about how young women in Agincourt are experiencing the transition to adulthood, what they consider critical markers of this transition, and the kinds of femininities that are valued, respected, and enacted in this setting.
Interview and focus group data were gathered from January-June of from 85 women aged 18— Study participants were selected from households within the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System, a long-standing demographic and health research programme Kahn et al.
Women were invited to participate in interviews based on random quota sampling according to four age groups: 18—25; 26—35; 36—45; and 46 years and above. This larger study provides the broader interpretational context for the current paper which analyses interview data from 18 women aged 18— Interviews were conducted in two stages.
In the first stage, interview themes included first pregnancy, first birth, motherhood, and HIV. Interviews Adult want sex Dyer Indiana semi-structured and lasted one hour on average. All women provided written informed consent to participate in the study, which was approved by institutional review boards in the United States and South Africa. This paper focuses on responses to two sets of interview questions and probes: 1 How does a girl become a woman or an adult in this culture? How did you become a woman?
And 2 How does a woman gain status and respect in society? Each author conducted structured coding of responses to one of the two main interview questions specified above, using a combination of deductive and inductive coding Charmaz ; Glaser and Strauss ; Strauss and Corbin After initial coding by interview question, we noted the prevalence of each theme across interviews and created analytic memos describing the most prominent patterns emerging from the data. All participant names are pseudonyms to preserve anonymity. Many participants described a process of transitioning to womanhood that unfolded in a series of developmental stages beginning with the physical transformations that occur during puberty such as menarche see also Mensch, Bruce, and Greene ; Sommer ; Sommer et al.
No participants mentioned the collective rituals marking the transition to adulthood that were common among older cohorts Monica Hunter Young women described the transition to womanhood as beginning with menarche. She developed breasts with buttocks. But by the time your body started to change, you see your periods—she started developing breasts.
This means she is a woman. Mary: I developed breasts and I started to see my periods at the age of I was grown up. Akani: Haa …she [a young woman] starts getting a bath frequently. She is always looking clean, make up her face, wearing shoes always. I still want to grow.
Akani: I was bathing. I was able to talk openly with other people, particularly to boys. I started to know myself better than other people. I was cleaning my room always. She has learned everything at home. She will start to cook.
You find that she was not cooking, but she was making tea only [as a girl]. She must know that she has to cook [as a woman]. In the past, she was making tea, and sweeping the street. But now she will cook porridge. When they plant things [farm], she will also do that or she gets married if she wants it. Rather than only making tea, she is relied upon to cook food porridgeparticipate in farming family plots, and, if she desires, get married. When she comes back she will start cooking, you see? Then you will notice that my child has grown up.
As implied in the earlier quotes, linked to these physical and behavioural changes was spending time with boys. This activity occasionally came into conflict with the expectation to take on more household responsibilities. When asked how she became a woman, 27 year old Nthati said. Nthati: I developed breasts and see my periods.
After that I started to fall in love laughter. Interviewer: Okay, are there ificant things or events that let you know that a girl has become a woman? Nthati: Yes, if a girl has become a woman, she stopped playing with young children, she starts bathing twice or three times a day, she is cleaning and helping in the house. But late hours in mostly, they go outside to meet with friends where they are with boys.
As Mary 22 years old describes itt, this was often a point of household Adult want sex Dyer Indiana. Mary: At home she starts to take time when you send her somewhere. Little [every] chance she gets she wants to see her friends or her boyfriend. Mary: My mother was always getting angry and sometimes she was upset. Sometimes she was beating me and even if she did like that, you [the girl] will make it worse as you will open the window and jump at night.
Sending youth on time- and labor-intensive household errands, such as fetching water from a village tap, was a common practice. She will shout at you saying that you are wasting her time. A girl starts to change her behaviour. You will see her in the morning. By that way you will see that she has started something like love affairs. It means she has grown up and she wants to Adult want sex Dyer Indiana a woman. Stories of night-time forays with boys were common throughout the data, and although this shift in behaviour represented a visible marker that a girl was becoming a woman, it often resulted in unintended pregnancies among the women in our sample.
Biological motherhood was regarded as an important marker of womanhood. Ehe … laughing. But I was young and it was a mistake. At home we were not bearing children before marriage; we were bearing children at our marriage.Adult want sex Dyer Indiana
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