Added: Telina Dinges - Date: 14.08.2021 01:55 - Views: 26408 - Clicks: 1582
For many young soon-to-be mothers in rural India, the initial excitement of their first pregnancy will be accompanied with fresh anxiety - what if the baby is a girl?
If she gives birth to a daughter the new mother risks being shamed and abused by her own family. A daughter may be considered a financial burden and likely not be able to support her and her husband in their older age. Today, that figure has risen to more than million, with the majority 80 per cent of these girls and women missing in India and China. But the other explanation, and one which is a Missing a female problem, is gender-biased sex selection. In other words, female babies are being avoided or aborted in preference to males.
Gender-biased sex selection is a profound form of discrimination that from the combination of three factors: strong preferences for sons within a society, the rising use of modern technologies, and generally declining fertility rates.
Under normal biological circumstances, the sex ratio at birth is male to female births. However, demographic evidence since the mids has indicated abnormally high sex ratios at birth, initially in China, India, South Korea, Vietnam, and more recently in Southeast Europe and the Caucasus.
For example, the sex ratio at birth in China peaked in at aroundand had declined to around in It can be most pronounced in highly agricultural and subsistence societies. These systems value sons over daughters because family assets are passed through male family members patrilinealand the greater earning potential of men in patriarchal societies le households to rely on boys as future supports as parents age.
At the same time modern technology is making it easier for couples to select the sex of their children. Widely available prenatal ultrasound means couples can very early learn the sex of their baby, affording them the opportunity to abort if they choose. In vitro fertilisation technology can also be used to directly select the sex of embryos. Finally, declining fertility rates, including China as a result of the one-child policy, and the other affected countries, are leading to smaller families. When these three factors son preference, access to modern technology and declining fertility are all present, gender-biased sex selection may arise; however, no single factor is the driving cause.
For example, although the use of prenatal ultrasound has compounded skewed sex ratios at birth, in those settings where there is no son preference, the increased availability of such technology is not associated with skewed sex ratios at birth. Giving birth to a girl in societies where only the birth of a son is celebrated, may lead to gender-based violence, shaming, and community abandonment.
Women who are pressured into having sons may also be coerced into multiple pregnancies until they have a boyaffecting both their mental and physical health. Skewed sex ratios at birth also result in societies with excess men and a shortage of women.
South Korea is one country that has been able to successfully normalise skewed sex ratios at birth. From a male to female birth ratio of Most experts believe this reduction resulted from shifts in social attitudes and targeted legislation. Industrialisation, however, made people less dependent on their family to survive. This helped drive a dramatic shift in societal attitudes and views around gender. Women were also encouraged to be educated and enter the workforce, enabling their financial independence.
South Korea also brought in new laws to promote gender equality, including the introduction of pension schemes to provide social support. Furthermore, the family law revision in enabled sons and daughters to have equal rights in property inheritance, married couples to tly decide where to live, and greater equality in property and child custody rights after divorce. UNFPA suggests the following measures to reverse gender-biased sex selection and promote gender equality:.
These efforts require targeted collaboration between all members of society, from national governments to community members. By working together, we can take action to promote equality for people of all genders, and make the world a fairer place for all children to grow up in.
Dr Meghan A. Pursuit home All sections. Share selection to:.Missing a female
email: [email protected] - phone:(284) 895-1621 x 9492
Where are all the missing girls?